The TLR-4/NF-κB signaling pathway activation in cochlear inflammation of rats with noise-induced hearing loss.
Hear Res. 2019 08;379:59-68
Authors: Zhang G, Zheng H, Pyykko I, Zou J
The TLR-4/NF-κB signaling pathway is involved in innate immunity and inflammation induced by trauma. The present study aimed to investigate possible TLR-4/NF-κB signaling pathway activation in the cochlea associated with acoustic trauma that might induce cochlear inflammation. A total of 72 rats were exposed to white noise at 120 dB SPL for 8 h per day repeated over 2 successive days. Auditory brainstem responses (ABR) were measured in animals before noise exposure and 0 d (PE0), 1 d (PE1), 3 d (PE3), 7 d (PE7), and 14 d (PE14) after noise exposure. At each defined time point, animals were sacrificed, and cochleae were collected to evaluate the expression levels of TLR4, MyD88, cytoplasmic NF-κB p65, IκBα, TNF-α, and IL-1β using western blotting and NF-κB p65 transcriptional activity using an NF-κB p65 Transcription Factor Assay Kit. Cochlear localizations of TLR-4, TNF-α and IL-1β were analyzed using immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded slices. The nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 was evaluated using immunofluorescence staining in paraffin-embedded slices. DNA fragmentation was measured with a TUNEL assay in paraffin-embedded slices. We found a stable permanent threshold shift after noise exposure. After noise exposure, expression levels of TLR-4, MyD88, IκBα, TNF-α, and IL-1β were significantly upregulated (PE3); DNA binding activity of NF-κB p65 was also significantly enhanced (PE3), while the cytoplasmic NF-κB p65 levels were unchanged. TLR-4, TNF-α, and IL-1β immunostaining intensities were substantially enhanced in spiral ganglion cells and spiral ligament fibrocytes after noise exposure (PE3). In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that the TLR-4/NF-κB signaling pathway is activated in noise-exposed cochleae and that it participates in noise-induced cochlear inflammation.
PMID: 31096078 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]